In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides in which multiple amino acids are linked by amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.A peptide is synthesized by the condensation of the carboxyl group of one amino acid with the amino group of another amino acid.A protective group strategy is usually required to prevent undesirable side reactions with various amino acid side chains.Chemical peptide synthesis is most commonly seen at the carboxyl terminal (c-terminal) of peptides and is directed toward the amino terminal (n-terminal).Protein biosynthesis (long peptide) in an organism occurs in the opposite direction.
Chemical synthesis of peptides can be performed using classical solution-phase techniques, although these techniques have been replaced by solid-phase methods in most research and development environments (see below).However, solution-phase synthesis retains its usefulness in mass-produced peptides for industrial purposes.
Chemical synthesis contributes to the production of peptides that are difficult to express in bacteria, the inactivation of non-natural amino acids, peptide/protein skeletal modifications, and the synthesis of d-proteins composed of d-amino acids.
A brief history of peptide synthesis
“Peptide synthesis” includes a number of techniques and procedures for making materials from small peptides to large proteins.The pioneering work of Bruce Merrifield, who introduced solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), dramatically changed the strategy for peptide synthesis and simplified the cumbersome and demanding purification steps associated with solution-phase synthesis.In addition, Merrifield’s SPPS allows the development of automated and extensive robotic instrumentation.After defining the synthesis strategy and programming the amino acid sequence, the machine can automatically perform all the synthesis steps to prepare multiple peptide samples.SPPS has become the preferred method for producing peptides, although solution-phase synthesis can still be used for mass production of a given peptide.
Peptide chemistry is a branch of chemistry with considerable delays in its development.Its growth could not be compared with the rapid development of aromatic chemistry, which began with the separation of benzene from Faraday gas in 1825, and the structure proposed by a. kule in 1865.These discoveries formed the basis of dyes and drugs.Manufacturing, then petrochemical production.The prehistory of peptide chemistry is hidden in earlier studies of protein and physiological chemistry, for example, to find a link between nutrients and blood components.
The first peptide synthesis and the term “peptide” were reported by Hermann Emil Fischer and Ernest Fourneau in 1901.
Emil Fischer summarized the separation of amino acids and peptides in proteolytic products and discussed the coupling of amino acids in proteins at the German society of scientists and physicians in carlsbad in 1902.In his own words (translated from German) : “the idea that groups like amides play a major role is easy to imagine, as hofmeister hypothesized in his general lecture this morning.”Fischer began experimenting with organic chemistry to link amino acids to each other as early as 1900.These two lectures marked the emergence of the so-called fischer-hofmeister theory of protein structure.Emil Fischer just described the first prototype glycine glycine in a paper by e.foumeau, and in his lecture also mentioned “peptides, dipeptides, tripeptides, etc.” and later “polypeptides.”
Emil Fischer and his colleagues used methods developed in his laboratory to synthesize about 100 peptides containing 2 to 18 amino acid residues in the first decade of the 20th century.
Bergmann systematically resumed peptide synthesis with Joseph s. Fruton in the Fischer school series, shortly after he joined Bergmann in 1934, shortly after he arrived at the Rockefeller institute.Fruton utilized the potential of new carbobenzoxy methods to synthesize inaccessible peptides, which were used as the substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis.He and Bergmann published a synthesis of a simple substrate that is cleaved by papain, chymotrypsin, trypsin and pepsin on certain peptide bonds.
Peptide chemistry has been around for more than a century, from simple diglycine compounds to enzymes containing more than 100 amino acids.Because of the individual characteristics of each amino acid and the combination of many amino acids that form macromolecules, peptides exhibit an extremely wide variety of specific functions.They act as chemical messengers, hormones, intracellular or intercellular mediators, highly specific stimulants and inhibitors, and as bioactive peptides in the brain and nervous system.Many antibiotic compounds from the skin of bacteria, mold, and amphibians are essentially digestive, so they are toxic not only to pathogens but also to the cells of higher organisms.Peptides that are actively involved in immune system responses are attracting increasing attention from biomedical researchers.The science of peptides is still in full swing.